Self-Driving Car: Levels, Benefits And Constraints

Self-Driving Car: Levels, Benefits And Constraints

All of us know that technology has got advanced today like never before and cars are one of the biggest examples of modern technology. Most of you have heard the name of autonomous cars usually known as Self driving cars. Some of you even had an experience of driving this car but there are some misconceptions that must be cleared. Either you’re familiar or not, we’ll go through the comprehensive review of self driving cars and get to know more about such cars. 

What is a Self-Driving Car?

As its name telling itself, it is all about the car that will drive itself. Modern technology and AI have revolutionized the whole way of driving. The human interaction and its involvement has been overtaken by artificial intelligence. These cars are also known as autonomous cars or driverless cars.

Autonomous cars have been designed in order to tackle traffic and other driving matters by themselves. The human effort for driving a car has been replaced by the technology getting used in these cars. The question that arises here is that can we rely on Self-driving cars totally?

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Some of you might be feeling confused with this term levels in the self-driving car. Basically, SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) has designed different levels of automation for these driverless cars. This SAE is an international organization that has set up all these levels of automation in order to provide a variety of control. Let’s get to know about these levels of car automation.  

  • Level 0 (No Driving): This is the level of automation in which driver has the full control of driving which means the car is not on self-driving mode. The car system may give alerts to the driver for avoiding danger on the road. 
  • Level 1 (Driving Assistance Mode): In this level, ADS (Automated Driving System) will assist and instruct the driver during car driving. The ADS will take over the steering wheel or the control of a driving speed but not both simultaneously. 
  • Level 2 (Partial  Driving Mode): Driver and ADS will be in the control, ADS can control both steering wheel and driving speed in this specific mode. Besides driving, a driver can also monitor the whole performance of the ADS. 
  • Level 3 (Conditional Driving Mode): This mode is all about giving relaxation to the driver. ADS will drive the car and monitor the performance as well and meanwhile, the driver can relax but will be to be attentive to respond to any danger or ADS request. 
  • Level 4 (High Automated Driving Mode): Talking about a highly automated driving level, it’s all about the ADS driving a car but ADS is limited in terms of heavy traffic or tensed environment.
  • Level 5 (Fully Automated Driving Mode): As name telling itself, its a complete automated driving level where everything will be under the control of ADS. From driving to tackling, everything is on ADS. 


Autonomous cars are supposed to provide ease and comfort to the driver on the road in terms of self driving. There are some core advantages that we need to discuss to know how much an autonomous car is beneficial. 

Reduced Fuel Emission

These self-driving cars are smarter than humans, the ADS will drive the car in the best calculated and measured way which is why there will be less breaking and acceleration. A reduced acceleration and calculated driver will definitely reduce the overall fuel emission which means less population. By the way, electric cars or hybrid cars are more effective in terms of fuel emission. 


Road safety is something you can’t compromise because things might be very dangerous on the road if not drive with safety measures. There is a 90% role of human error behind car accidents so these driverless cars have reduced that chance of human error to avoid car accidents.=

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Less Traffic

Who doesn’t want less traffic on the road? The use of autonomous cars is helpful in terms of reducing traffic. Connected autonomous cars’ communication between each other can be really helpful in terms of optimizing routes and reducing traffic. 


All of us know how much advanced and modern these driverless cars are but there are some arguments and limitations. Going through those issues and problems of the driverless car is very important for all of us.

  • Unemployment – Due to the rise of autonomous cars, people are losing jobs especially car drivers. The one who is driving someone’s car to fulfill his expenses might lose his job as there is no need to hire a driver anymore because it’s going to be the era of driverless cars.
  • Judgment Issue- Although technology has got advanced and it has started facilitating millions in terms of reducing time and bringing optimization in different matters. The issue is that can we rely 100% on driverless cars?  How would driverless cars react in case someone jumps off in front of the car suddenly? Another question arises here is that a driverless car can perform moral decisions on the road? So, these insecurities and concerns are still there regarding these cars. 
  • Hacking- There are many advantages of modern technology but hacking is something you can’t ensure would never happen. In the past, car thieves were used to unlocking car locks through different tactics and techniques but now they can hack the autonomous car. Cyber hacking on autonomous cars may lead to various car accidents and traffic jams on the road. 


In a short note, we can conclude that driverless cars have brought the revolution to the world of technology. People will not have to put a lot of effort in driving their cars because ADS (Automated Driving System) will take over the whole driving job. We’ve realized that there are many benefits of having autonomous cars like a reduction in traffic and fuel emission. Besides having modern technology, there are still some constraints there need to be answered for an optimized and safe ride on the road. In short, a self-driving car is like a revolution in the automobile technology facilitating people for a safe, smooth, and driverless drive.

Known for his amazing writing and technical blogging skills, Edward Thompson is the admin of the Techenger. Joined back in 2019, after moving from San Francisco to Chicago to switch from his role of staff writer to a guest blogger. Since then, he never looked back to his past. In nutshell, he is a tech enthusiast who loves to write, read, test, evaluate, and spread knowledge about the growing technology that surrounds mankind.

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